A device that transports data between a wireless network and a wired network (infrastructure), similar in fuction to a wired hub.
A term used to refer to initialisms, which
are combinations of letters representing a
longer phrase). Acronyms are pronounced
as words rather than a series of individual
letters. View a complete list of acronyms.
New programming standard proposed by
Microsoft to increase the functionality of
web pages. Similar in some respects to
Number of times that a viewer clicks on an
Normally refers to one's e-mail address
which can be a series of letters and/or
numbers, or when referring to a World
Wide Web site, it is a URL.
Process used by a credit card processor or
other party to verify that a customer's
ordering address matches their records.
(Advanced Digital Network): Normally
refers to a 56Kbps leased-line.
(Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line): A
method for moving data over regular phone
lines that is much faster than a regular
phone connection. Data can be downloaded
at speeds of up to 1.544 megabits (not
megabytes) per second and sent at speeds
of up to 128 kilobits per second.
A system of advertising in which site A
agrees to feature banners, buttons, and
links from site B in exchange for a
payment, usually as a percentage of any
sales generated for site B.
Marketing efforts aimed at consumers on
the basis of established buying patterns.
Agents are search tools that automatically
seek out relevant online information based
on your specifications. Agents are also
called intelligent agents, personal agents,
knowbots, or droids.
A set of rules that a search engine uses to
rank the listings contained within its index,
in response to a particular query. No search
engine reveals exactly how its own
algorithm works, to protect itself from
competitors and those who wish to spam
the search engine.
See organic listings.
Nickname for a domain or host computer.
Synonym for a hyperlink.
Allows internet users to access certain
servers via FTP (file transfer protocol) using
a general password such as GUEST or
ANONYMOUS for the purpose of
downloading freeware and shareware files.
A small program that runs from within
another program, generally a Java program
embedded in a web page which executes as
the web page loads in a browser such as
Netscape or Internet Explorer.
A computer program, specifically software
that runs on a computer and performs a
particular task, i.e. word processor,
(Application Programming Interface):
A standard interface between a
communications device and a software
application operating in a computer.
An internet service that enables users to
search the file databases of many
anonymous FTP sites. Can be accessed via
telnet, a local Archie client, or e-mail.
Term used to describe either a server
containing a large amount of publicily
accessible software or a file containing one
or more other files that have been
compressed and stored.
Advanced Research Projects Agency. The
governmental organization responsible for
creating the beginnings of the internet.
The network developed by ARPA in the late
1960's and early 1970's which served as a
foundation for today's internet. An
experiment in wide-area-networking
intended to survive a nuclear war.
(American Standard Code for Information
Interchange): The world-wide standard for
the code numbers used by computers to
represent all upper and lower-case letters,
numbers, punctuation, etc. There are 128
standard ASCII codes.
A file that is linked or included to a specific
e-mail message, just as you might paperclip
a clipping to a snail mail letter.
Automated Clearing House
An ACH transaction is an electronic fund
transfer through the Federal Reserve Bank
from a checking or savings account.
The process of checking the validity and
available balance of a customer's credit
card before the transaction can be
Refers to the main high-speed international
telecommunication networks that carry
internet traffic among national, regional,
and local networks.
All the links pointing at a particular web
page. Also called inbound links.
A high-tech term used to describe the
amount of data (webpages, text, graphics,
video, sound, etc.) that can travel in a
given time, usually one second, across a
network or a connection to a network such
as a modem. When you send a message
across the internet, you are using part of
its bandwidth, just as your car takes up
space on the freeway. The management
of a customer's website is based on the
amount of data transfer used per month.
When pages are removed from a search
engine's index specifically because the
search engine has deemed them to be
spamming or violating some type of
Baud or BPS
(Bits per second): The baud rate is the
measurement of speed that a telephone or
cable modem can transmit or receive in
bits;more is better. Example: a 1200
bit-per-second modem actually runs at 400
baud, but moves 3 bits per baud or (3 x
400) 1200 bits per second. You will want a
modem with a rating of at least 14,400 bps
to access the internet effectively.
Preferably, use 28,800 or higher.
An interactive ad placed on a webpage that
is linked to an external advertiser's website
or another internal page within the same
Abbreviation for Bulletin Board System, a
system that allows people to meet and
leave messages, carry on discussions, and
upload and download files without the
people being connected to the computer at
the same time.
(BINary HEXadecimal): A method for
converting binary files (applications) into
ASCII format. This is needed because
internet e-mail can only handle ASCII.
Abbreviation meaning "Basic Input-Output
System". Computer software controlling
input and output (e.g. on a PC, the code
stored in ROMs which allows the PC to
communicate with the keyboard, screen
and disks as well as boot up an operating
A wireless, short-range radio technology aimed at voice and data networking with 1 mbps maximum transfer rate. Bluetooth is not compatible with 802.11 or 802.11b.
(Bits-Per-Second): A measurement of how
fast data is moved from one place to
another. A 28.8 modem can move 28,800
bits per second.
The broadband communication network has significantly greater bandwidth than telephone networks, which allows it to be shared among multiple signals — such as those for voice and data — or different frequencies.
Refers to software which allows a user to
navigate the World Wide Web and look at
various kinds of internet resources offering
visual graphics and text. The most popular
browsers used to navigate the Web are
Microsoft Explorer, Netscape Navigator,
AOL, Web TV, and Opera.
A set of bits that represent a single
character. Usually there are 8 bits in a
byte, sometimes more, depending on
how the measurement is being made.
"Card Not Present" Merchant Account
An account that allows merchants to
process credit cards without a face to face
transaction with the purchaser.
(Compact Disc - Read-Only Memory): CD
A Certificate Authority (CA) is a third party
which verifies the identity of merchants and
their sites. The certificate authority issues a
certificate (also called a digital certificate or
an authentication certificate) to an
applicant company, which can then put the
certificate up on its site.
Stands for "Common Gateway Interface"
(but everyone uses the acronym these
days). CGI refers to programs that
sites can run to generate web pages
dynamically. For example, web search
engines use CGI programs to read what
keywords you're searching for, find web
pages for you, and format the results in a
web page for you to see. A CGI program
can be written in any computer language.
Perl is the most popular language for
writing CGI programs, but other major
contenders are C and C++, Unix shell
scripts, Java, and Visual Basic.
Another term for IRC. Also, an acronym
meaning Conversational Hypertext Access
Technology. An internet feature which
allows two or more people to communicate
with each other by typing messages on
their keyboards. This is similar to a
telephone conversation but using
Refers to the theoretical room in
cyberspace where individuals with a similar
interest "meet together" to "chat."
A computed value which is dependent upon
the contents of a packet. This value is sent
along with the packet when it is
transmitted. The receiving system
computes a new checksum based upon the
received data and compares this value with
the one sent with the packet. If the two
values are the same, the receiver has a
high degree of confidence that the data
was received correctly.
(Computer Incident Advisory Center): A
group of the U.S. Department of Energy
that alerts concerned parties with
information about computer security and
viruses which may affect other government
agencies and the public.
The percentage of those clicking on a link
out of the total number who see the link.
For example, imagine 10 people do a web
search. In response, they see links to a
variety of web pages. Three of the 10
people all choose one particular link. That
link then has a 30 percent clickthrough
rate. Also called CTR.
A computer attached to any network
(including the internet) that requests a
service of another computer system or
process. The term is also used to describe
personal computer software (FTP or Telnet)
that gives access to and enables use of the
internet either by modem connection or by
connection to a local area network and
In terms of search engine marketing, this is
the act of getting a search engine to record
content for a URL that is different than
what a searcher will ultimately see. It can
be done in many technical ways. Several
search engines have explicit rules against
unapproved cloaking. Those violating these
guidelines might find their pages penalized
or banned from a search engine's index. As
for approved cloaking, this generally only
happens with search engines offering paid
inclusion program. Anyone offering cloaking
services should be able to demonstrate
explicit approval from a search engine
about what they intend to do. If not, then
they should then have explained the risks
inherent of unapproved cloaking.
(Coaxial): It's the thick round cabling
commonly used for cable television.
Depending on how it's used, it can have
100 to 500 times the data-carrying
capacity of regular phone lines. Cable TV
is already in more than 60 percent of
American homes, and nearby to most
others. But cable systems must be
updated to handle digital data in addition
to broadcast signals, and PCS would require
new "cable modems" to use them.
The server that manages and maintains all
transactional and backend data for a
Contextual Link Inventory
To supplement their business models,
certain text-link advertising networks have
expanded their network distribution to
include "contextual inventory". Most
vendors of "search engine traffic" have
expanded the definition of search engine
marketing to include this contextual
inventory. Contextual or content inventory
is generated when listings are displayed on
pages of web sites (usually not search
engines), where the written content on the
page indicates to the ad-server that the
page is a good match to specific keywords
and phrases. Often this matching method is
validated by measuring the number of
times a viewer clicks on the displayed ad.
The relationship between visitors to a
web site and actions consider to be a
"conversion," such as a sale or request to
receive more information. Often expressed
as a percentage. If a web site has 50
visitors and 10 of them convert, then the
site has a 20 percent conversion rate.
A small file which is installed on your
computer by a web site you visit. The file
contains data about you and the computer
system you are on and the data is often
used by the web site to track your choices
and custom tailor responses for future
Cost Per Click
System where an advertiser pays an agreed
amount for each click someone makes on a
link leading to their web site. Also known
See cost per click.
System where an advertiser pays an agreed
amount for the number of times their ad
is seen by a consumer, regardless of the
consumer's subsequent action. Heavily used
in print, broadcasting and direct marketing,
as well as with online banner ad sales. CPM
stands for "cost per thousand," since ad
views are often sold in blocks of 1,000.
The M in CPM is Latin for thousand.
Crackers are users who try to gain illegal
access to computers. They are usually
malicious in their intentions.
Component of a search engine that gathers
listings by automatically "crawling" the
web. A search engine's crawler (also called
(a spider or robot) follows links to web
pages. It makes copies of the web pages
found and stores these in the search
The promotion of a website through other
traditional forms of advertising such as
magazines, newspapers, radio, TV,
See clickthrough rate.
A term coined by science fiction writers
William Gibson and Bruce Sterlingreffering
for a sub-group which exists in an
overindustialized society. It is a cultural
label used for many different kinds of
human, machine, and punk attitudes,
including clothing and lifestyle.
A popular term (first used by author William
Gibson in his sci-fi novel Neuromancer) for
the space or the plethora of information
that seems to exist within computers and